Note that there are two types of Australian work visas. This is a subclass 417 visa which a Thai national cannot apply for. As a Thai you can only apply for the Australian Work and Holiday Visa (subclass 462). This visa is limited to certain nationalities which are listed below. If you wish to holiday and work in Australia then see the other visa which a Thai national can apply for in Thailand.
If you are applying for a visa in Thailand for Australia then certain visas will require a police clearance certificate issued in Thailand from Thai police. There is a waiting period for the certificate in Bangkok which also needs to be handed in for a marriage visa, fiancée visa or a partner visa for Australia. The following is what the Australian Immigration service will not allow.
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The partner visa for Australia is mainly used by same-sex couples. Gay marriage or same sex marriage is not allowed under Thai law or Australia law. There are changes in the making in Thai law which you can read here. The process would be very similar to the Australian Spouse Visa as you also have an option of using that visa for a same-sex relationship based not on marriage but a relationship.
You will require a health certificate if you are applying for an Australian visa. This could be a fiancée visa for Australia or an Australian Spouse visa or partner visa. The health check is done in Thailand at a hospital and Thailand is ranked as a high risk country by Australia. This means there needs to be additional checks. These are listed as below.
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The Australian child visa is a visa for a Thai child who now wants to join his/her mother in Australia. According to Australian Immigration law the child has to be under the age of 18 in order to apply for this visa. Note however that this class of visa is for a Thai mother who is already an Australian citizen or permanent resident or the Australian father.
If you have Thai family in Australia and one of your relatives are ill and need long-term care then you can apply for this visa. If you are already married to an Australian citizen then you cannot apply for this visa but would have to apply for an Australian Spouse visa for a Thai national in Bangkok. This is only for a Thai family member who is already an Australian citizen.